Europe Between the Two World Wars

This is a short post about Europe Between the two world wars:

After The End of The First World War The World Was Left In A Great Chaos And Destruction.
European diplomacy Involved in a Major Problems:
1-the attempt to establish collective security by means of new international bodies.
2-the unwillingness of the non-European powers, the U.S., Japan, and the British Dominions in particular, to assume responsibility for anything outside their respective spheres of interests.
3-the competition between French efforts to maintain the position of leadership on the continent of Europe established by the peace settlements, and German endeavors to evade or revise the terms imposed in 1919.
4-the attempts to attain security and prosperity by neomercantilist ideas imposed as emergency measures.
The era between the wars can be divided chronologically into three phases:
1-the period of settlement (from the peace treaties to the Dawes Plan, 1924)
2-the period of fulfillment (1924 to the evacuation of the Rhineland, 1930)
3-the period of repudiation and revision (1930–39).
November 8th-1923 General Erich Ludendorff and Adolf Hitler, leader of a growing National Socialist Party, attempted to overthrow the Bavarian government. The rising was poorly organized and was easily put down. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison. While serving his term he wrote Mein Kampf, a book outlining his career, his theories, and his program. He was released after serving less than a year, and at once resumed his propaganda and organizing activity
1932, March 13 Hindenburg secured 18,651,497 votes as against 11,300,000 for Hitler and 4,983,341 for Th?lmann (Communist). Hindenburg fell just short of the required majority. In the second election (April 10) he secured a plurality of only 6 million out of a total vote of 36 million.
Aug. 13 Hitler refused Hindenburg’s request that he serve as a vice chancellor under Papen. He demanded all or nothing.
July Romania and Russia concluded a nonaggression pact, involving tacit recognition of Romania’s possession of Bessarabia. It was the direct result of Hitler’s victory in Germany and Russia’s preoccupation with the Far Eastern situation
( July 15) Conclusion of the four-power pact among Britain, France, Germany, and Italy; backed by Mussolini as an alternative to the League, but of no significance.
October 14 German withdrawal from the disarmament conference and from the League of Nations (Oct. 23).
May 5 German withdrawal from the disarmament conference and from the League of Nations (Oct. 23).
September 18 The Soviet Union joined the League of Nations, another reflection of fear of the new Germany.
1935 Jan.7 Franco-Italian agreement, dealing with conflicting interests in Africa, but meant to pave the way to Franco-Italian cooperation in the event of action by Germany.
1936 Oct.25 A GERMAN-ITALIAN PACT established the Berlin-Rome Axis, marking the division of Europe into contending groups, with the Axis powers pressing for changes in the status quo.
Nov.25 A German-Japanese agreement, followed by an Italian-Japanese agreement (Nov. 6, 1937), directed against communism and the Third International (the anti-Comintern pact).
1937 Nov.17 Visit of Lord Halifax, member of the British cabinet, to Hitler, with the aim of discovering the German objectives and, if possible, striking some peaceful settlement. Halifax returned deeply impressed with the magnitude of the German program, especially in Central and Eastern Europe.
1938 Sept. 7–29 Height of the GERMAN-CZECH CRISIS The Sudeten leaders broke off negotiations with the government (Sept. 7) after an affray at Moravska Ostrava. Discussions were resumed (Sept. 10), but disorders, provoked by extremists, became more and more frequent. On Sept. 12 Hitler, in a speech at Nürnberg, first demanded in no uncertain terms that the Sudeten Germans be given the right of self-determination. This address was the signal for widespread disorders and the proclamation of martial law by the government (Sept. 13). Henlein and other leaders fled across the frontier (Sept. 15). To meet this dangerous situation, Prime Minister Chamberlain, in agreement with the French government, proposed a personal conference to Hitler.
The German chancellor baldly stated his demand for annexation of the German areas of Czechoslovakia on the basis of self-determination, and did not conceal his readiness to risk a war to attain his end.
Sept. 22–23 CHAMBERLAIN’S SECOND VISIT TO HITLER AT GODESBERG Further demands of the German chancellor: surrender of the predominantly German territories at once, without removal or destruction of military or economic establishments; plebiscites to be held in areas with large German minority by Nov. 25, under German-Czech or international supervision. These terms were regarded by Chamberlain as quite unacceptable, and as an unwarranted extension of the original German demands.
Sept. 29 THE MUNICH CONFERENCE AND AGREEMENT. Hitler, Ribbentrop, Mussolini, Ciano, Chamberlain, and Daladier conferred during the afternoon and evening The agreement (dated Sept. 29) was actually signed just after midnight. Hitler secured about all that he had demanded: evacuation to take place between Oct. 1 and Oct. 10, under conditions arranged by an international commission, which should also determine the plebiscite areas. Britain and France undertook to guarantee the new frontiers of Czechoslovakia against unprovoked aggression. When the Polish and Hungarian minorities questions were solved, Germany and Italy would give a like guaranty. The Czech government felt impelled to acquiesce in this settlement on Sept. 30.
1939 Sept.3 BRITAIN AND FRANCE DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY, thus signaling the second great war of the 20th century.
The War Begun In September 3rd 1939,Britian and France Made Alliance Against Germany,Italy and Japan.
1941, June 22 GERMAN ARMIES INVADED THE SOVIET UNION,Thus The Soviets Joined Alliance With Britain And France Against The Axis.
1941, Dec. 7 Japanese Sea And Air Forces Launched A Surprise Attack On The United States Base At Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, On The Philippines
Dec. 8 The United States Declared war on Japan And Joined The Allies Against The Axis

More coming soon



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